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C

Capsular contracture - the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery; occurs if the scar or capsule around the implant begins to tighten. This is a serious complication that may result in removing the implant.

Carpenter syndrome - A birth defect that typically includes traits such as abnormally short fingers, webbed toes, extra toes, underdeveloped jaw, highly arched palate, widely spaced eyes and/or low-set, deformed ears. 50% of patients with Carpenter syndrome also suffer from heart defects.

Chemical peeling - uses a chemical solution in order to improve the skin's appearance. It can reduce or eliminate fine lines under the eyes and around the mouth, correct uneven skin pigmentation, remove pre-cancerous skin growths and soften acne or treat the acne scars.

Cleft lip - an abnormality in which the lip does not form completely. The degree of the cleft lip can vary greatly, from mild (notching of the lip) to severe (large opening from the lip up through the nose).

Cleft palate - occurs when the roof of the mouth does not completely close, leaving an opening that can extend into the nasal cavity. The cleft may involve either side of the palate. It can go from the front of the mouth (hard palate) to the throat (soft palate). It can also include the lip.

Collagen/fat injectable fillers (Also called soft-tissue augmentation) cosmetic surgery technique used to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin and/or scarring.

Computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan) - diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. CAT scans can show detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat and organs. CAT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.

Congenital - present at birth.

Congenital anomaly - a health problem present at birth (not necessarily genetic).

Contractures - an abnormal condition of a joint caused by a loss of muscle fibers or a loss of the normal flexibility of the skin.

Coronal suture - the joining line (suture) between the frontal and parietal bones of the skull; crosses the top of the skull from temple to temple.

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Cosmetic plastic surgery (Also called aesthetic plastic surgery) - one type of plastic surgery performed to repair or reshape otherwise normal structures of the body, primarily to improve the patient's appearance and self-esteem.

Craniofacial - pertaining to the head (skull) and face.

Craniosynostosis - a condition in which the sutures (soft spots) in the skull of an infant close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth. Premature closure of the sutures may also cause the elevation of the pressure inside of the head and can cause the skull or facial bones to change from a normal, symmetrical appearance.

Crouzon's syndrome - A birth defect characterized by abnormalities in the skull and facial bones. This condition often causes the skull to be short in the front and the back. Flat cheek bones and a flat nose are also typical of this disorder.

Chemexfoliation - See chemical peel

Cholasma - See melasma

Collagen - The major structural proteins in the skin that give it its strength and resilience.

Copper peptide - Common ingredient found in skin care products. It is used to promote and produce collagen and elastin in the skin.

Contracture scar - A type of scar in which a permanent tightening of skin occurs, often in response to a burn. This type of scar may affect the underlying muscles and tendons, limiting mobility and possibly damaging the nerves.

Crows feet - The fine lines found around the eyes. They are often caused by sun exposure; nonetheless, smoking also contributes to their formation.

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